Shorewall and a Simple Bridge

Tom Eastep

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

2013/12/27


Background

Systems where Shorewall runs normally function as routers. In the context of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) reference model, a router operates at layer 3. Shorewall may also be deployed on a GNU Linux System that acts as a bridge. Bridges are layer-2 devices in the OSI model (think of a bridge as an Ethernet switch).

Some differences between routers and bridges are:

  1. Routers determine packet destination based on the destination IP address while bridges route traffic based on the destination MAC address in the Ethernet frame.

  2. As a consequence of the first difference, routers can be connected to more than one IP network while a bridge may be part of only a single network.

  3. A router cannot forward broadcast packets while a bridge can.

Application

There are cases where you want to create a bridge to join two or more LAN segments and you don't need to restrict the traffic between those segments. This is the environment that is described in this article.

If you do need to restrict traffic through the bridge, please refer to the Shorewall Bridge/Firewall documentation. Also please refer to that documentation for information about how to create a bridge.

The following diagram shows a firewall for two bridged LAN segments.

This is fundamentally the Two-interface Firewall described in the Two-interface Quickstart Guide. The bridge-specific changes are restricted to the /etc/shorewall/interfaces file.

Note

Older configurations that specify an interface name in the SOURCE column of /etc/shorewall/masq will also need to change that file.

This example illustrates the bridging of two Ethernet devices but the types of the devices really isn't important. What is shown here would apply equally to bridging an Ethernet device to an OpenVPN tap device (e.g., tap0) or to a wireless device (ath0 or wlan0).

/etc/shorewall/interfaces:

#ZONE          INTERFACE       BROADCAST      OPTIONS
net            eth0            detect         ...
loc            br0             10.0.1.255     routeback,...

So the key points here are:

  • The loc interface is br0.

  • Neither eth1 nor eth2 have IP addresses and neither are mentioned in the Shorewall configuration.

  • The routeback option is specified for br0.

  • The default gateway for hosts in the local segments will be 10.0.1.254 — the IP address of the bridge itself.

Note to Shorewall-perl users: You should also specify the bridge option:

#ZONE          INTERFACE       BROADCAST      OPTIONS
net            eth0            detect         ...
loc            br0             10.0.1.255     routeback,bridge,...

Your entry in /etc/shorewall/masq should be unchanged:

#INTERFACE     SOURCE          ADDRESS
eth0           10.0.1.0/24     ...            # 10.0.1.0/24 is the local network on LAN A and LAN B

Documentation


Frequently Used Articles

- FAQs - IPv4 Manpages - IPv6 Manpages - Configuration File Basics - Beginner Documentation - Troubleshooting

Shorewall 4.0/4.2 Documentation


Current HOWTOs and Other Articles

- 6to4 and 6in4 Tunnels - Accounting - Actions - Aliased (virtual) Interfaces (e.g., eth0:0) - Anatomy of Shorewall - Anti-Spoofing Measures - AUDIT Target support - Bandwidth Control - Blacklisting/Whitelisting - Bridge/Firewall - Building Shorewall from GIT - Commands - Compiled Programs - Configuration File Basics - DHCP - DNAT - Dynamic Zones - ECN Disabling by host or subnet - Events - Extension Scripts - Fallback/Uninstall - FAQs - Features - Fool's Firewall - Forwarding Traffic on the Same Interface - FTP and Shorewall - Helpers/Helper Modules - Installation/Upgrade - IPP2P - IPSEC - Ipsets - IPv6 Support - ISO 3661 Country Codes - Kazaa Filtering - Kernel Configuration - KVM (Kernel-mode Virtual Machine) - Limiting Connection Rates - Linux Containers (LXC) - Linux-vserver - Logging - Macros - MAC Verification - Manpages (IPv4) (IPv6) - Manual Chains - Masquerading - Multiple Internet Connections from a Single Firewall - Multiple Zones Through One Interface - My Shorewall Configuration - Netfilter Overview - Network Mapping - No firewalling of traffic between bridge port - One-to-one NAT - Operating Shorewall - OpenVPN - OpenVZ - Packet Marking - Packet Processing in a Shorewall-based Firewall - 'Ping' Management - Port Forwarding - Port Information - Port Knocking (deprecated) - Port Knocking, Auto Blacklisting and Other Uses of the 'Recent Match' - PPTP - Proxy ARP - QuickStart Guides - Release Model - Requirements - Routing and Shorewall - Routing on One Interface - Samba - Shorewall Events - Shorewall Init - Shorewall Lite - Shorewall on a Laptop - Shorewall Perl - Shorewall Setup Guide - SMB - SNAT - Split DNS the Easy Way - Squid with Shorewall - Starting/stopping the Firewall - Static (one-to-one) NAT - Support - Tips and Hints - Traffic Shaping/QOS - Simple - Traffic Shaping/QOS - Complex - Transparent Proxy - UPnP - Upgrade Issues - Upgrading to Shorewall 4.4 (Upgrading Debian Lenny to Squeeze) - VPN - VPN Passthrough - White List Creation - Xen - Shorewall in a Bridged Xen DomU - Xen - Shorewall in Routed Xen Dom0

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